Special feature: ORCHESTRA LIBRARIAN QUIZ by Gary Corrin. librarian, TSO The orchestra librarian 's r_esponsibility is to prepare the music material from which the on-stage musicians will peiform. The process can be fraught with problnns, all of which must be solved before the first rehearsal. Want my job? Here's a sample of the kinds of questions you'd be asked in the application test. (Answers are on the next page) EDITIONS: i. Briefly describe the difference between publications of MOZART, Symphony No. 39 by Brietkopf & Hiirtel (Leipzig) and Barenreiter, pointing out · the strengths and weaknesses of each. 2. Name five editors of BRUCKNER Symphonies. Which are today considered to be the most reliable? 3. All the Mahler Symphonies may be purchased in their original editions - or rented (at a much higher cost) in their critical editions. What might influence the librarian's decision to rent or buy? 4. DVORAK, Symphony No. 8 in G Major, Op. 88 was originally published under what title? What other symphonies by DvorA: share this problem? FURTHER CLARIFICATION: In many instances, being given the composer and title of a work is not· definitive information. 5. Describe why each of the following , titles requires further identification. a. BRAHMS, Hungarian Dance No. 5 · b. HA YDN, Cello Concerto No. 2 c. MOZART, Symphony No. 40, K. 550 d. STRAUSS, Voices of Spring e. STRA VINSKY, Firebird ORCHESTRA PERFORMANCE PRACTICE: 6. What is the problem with the clarinet parts in BERLIOZ, Symphonie fantastique? 7. In BEETHOVEN, Symphony No. 9, the Principal Horn has told you' s/he will play the third movement solo. What do you have to do? · 8. When performing RESPIGHI, Pines · of Rome, what is the issue with the brass? What does the librarian usually do during these performances? REFERENCE BOOKS: 9. In what book or encyclopedia would you et pect to find .. . a. . .. •a complete listing of works for most classical composers? b. . .. how many recordings of Bartok, Hungarian Sketches are currently available? c .... the composer and lyricist for the song, "Night and Day"? d .... whether BEETHOVEN, Symphony No. 4 has one flute or two? e .... histories of both the CBC and Blue 21. Viola Rodeo? · 10. A thematic catalogue is a complete listing of a single composer's works. Match the name of the creator of the thematic catalogue to the appropriate composer. a. Koechel 1. Schubert b. Fanna 2. Vivaldi c. Hoboken 3. J.S. Bach d. Kinsky 4. Mozart e. Deutsch 5. Beethoven f. Schmieder(BMV) 6. 'Haydn COPYRIGHT LAW: 11. Give a brief description of the difference between Canadian and U.S. ·copyright law. What implications does this have for the following works? a. STRAUSS, Don Juan b. BARTOK, Concerto for Orchestra 12. Why do the works of Russian composers present a unique problem? 13. Why might a publication of a work by Mozart be protected by copyright? PERFORMING RIGHTS: 14. What is the difference between small rights and grand rights? INSTRUMENTS: 15. In what clef are the following instruments riotated, and how does the pitch produced by the instrument compare to the pitch notated? English Horn Piccolo Oboe d'amore Tenor Saxophone ' 16. What is the modern-day replacement for these obsolete instruments? Ophicleide Sarrusaphone Viola da gainba Viola da braccio AUDITIONS: 17. Match the instrument with the work which includes a prominent solo for that instrument Use each title onlv once. 1. Flute 11. 'Cello 2. Piccolo 12. Bass 3. Oboe 13. Trumpet 4. English Horn 14. Trombone (2nd) 5. Clarinet 15. Tuba 6. Bass Clarinet 16. Timpani 7. Alto Saxophone 17. Snare Drum 8. Bassoon 18. Harp 9. Contra Bassoon 19. Piano 10. Horn 20. Violin a. Stravinsky, Rite of Spring b. Ravel, Le tombeau de Couperin c. Strauss, Don Quixote d. Tchaikovsky, Symphony No. 4 (3rd Mvt.) e. Mahler, Symphony No. 5 f. Saint-saens, Carnival of the Animals (Elephant) g. Strauss, Le bourgeois gentilhomme h. Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker (Waltz of the Flowers) i. Sibelius, Symphony No. , 1 j. Rachmaninoff, Symphonic Dances k. Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian Easter l. Adam, Giselle m. Ravel, Mother Goose (Beauty and the Beast) n. Stravinsky, Petrouchka o. Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 (Scherzo) p. Mussorgsky I Ravel; Pictures at an Exhibition (Bydlo) q. Sibelius, The Swan· of Tuonela r. Strauss, Till Eulenspiegel · s. Debussy, Afternoon of a faun t. Khachaturian, Piano Concerto (2nd mvt.) u. Ravel, Bolero TRANSLATION OF FOREIGN TERMS: 18. Translate these terms: Arco Pult Cinelli Feierlich Bratsche Tromba Posaune Ragazzi SUBTITLES OF WORKS: 19. Name the composer of these works: 1. "Choral Symphony" 2. "Die Nullte" 3. "Mozartiana" 4. "Leningrad Symphony" 5. "Invitation to the Dance" 6. "Oiseaux exotiques" 7. "Variaciones concertantes" 8. "The Unanswered Question" 9. "Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra" 10. "Da; Lied von der Erde" 11. "Fanfare for the Common Man" 12. "Bull on the Roof" 13. "Ballet mecanique" 14. "Symphony of Psalms" 15. "Midday Witch" 16. "Musical Joke" 17. "Siegfried's Rhine Journey" 18. "Unfinished Symphony" ORONTO:s ONLY COMPREHENSIVE MONTH LY CLASSICAL & CONTEMPORARY CONCERT LISTING SOURCE
EDITIONS: I. Breitkopf a_nd Hartel (Leipzig) was published in the ninteenth century and reflects the performance style of the time, replete with slurs and dynamic markings which the editors felt clarified the composer's intention. The newer Biirereiter edition has far fewer editorial markings. The problem is that the Brietkopf editions have been the "industry standard" for so long that often players will re insert slurs, etc. into Biirenreiter. This can become very time consuming in the case of string parts. (lbe librarian should check the preference with the conductor and concertmaster.) (Biirenreiter parts are· also notorious for bad page turns.) 2. Few of Bruckner's symphonies were popular at the outset, so Bruckner undertook revisions to several, as did well-meaning friends, sometimes with Bruckner's consent-, sometimes without. Schalk, Lowe, Herbeck, Oeser, Hynais, Haas, Nowak, Levi, ahd Bruckner himself were all early editors of BRUCKNER. Editions can vary wildly, as· do conductors' preferences. The most reliable editions today · are published by the Musikwissenschaftlicher Verlag under the editorship of Leopold Nowak. In some cases these vary insignificantly from the earlier Bruckner Society editions by Haas. 3. Each symphony must be " evaluated on a case-by-case basis. In conducting many of his own symphonies Mahler made extensive revisions to some,. (Symphony No. 4 is a prime example.) In this case, were the conductor to use the critical editions score, the orchestra could not use the original edition parts. In the case of his Symphony No. 9, Mahler died before the work was published, so obviously made no revisions. The differences between the two editions are therefore insignificant. In this case, it is both cheaper and more practical to buy the original edition. 4. Symphony No. 4. When Dvonik became famous, his earlier· (unpublished) symphonies were published, necessitating renumbering .. The works previously known as Symphonies I, 2, 3, 4 and 5 became Symphonies 6, 7, 5, S and 9 respectively. FURTHER CLARIFICATION: Sa. BRAHMS, Hungarian Dances were originally composed for piano four-hands. Several were subsequently orchestrat~d by Brahms and others--No. 5 by Orchestra Librarian's Quiz: Answers . \ Parlow and by Schmelling. 5b. HA YDN, Cello Concerto No. 2 exists in two drastically different versions: the original edited by Soldan and the later edited by Gavaert. The soloist must be consulted. · Se. MOZART, Symphony No. 40 exists in an early version without clarinets and the more popular later version that includes clarinets. 5d. STRAUSS [Johann Jr.], Voices of Spring exists as a purely orchestral work and in a version for solo voice and orchestra. Se. STRAVINSKY, Firebird.exists in its original ballet version and in three different suites (1911), (1919) and (1949), all by Stravinsky. ORCHESTRA PERFORMANCE PRACTICE: 6. In· the final movement "Dream of a Witch's Sabbath" the Eb clarinet is written in the first clarinet part. But few Principal Clarinetists are also the designated Eb player. So you must copy the Eb part to the second clarinet part, and the second clarinet part to the first. 7. la BEETHOVEN, Symphony No. 9, the slow movement horn ·solo is in the Fourth horn part, so this must be copied for the Principal Horn. The other parts must then be copied and distributed according to direction of the Principal Horn. S. The last movement of RES PIG HI, Pines of Rome, calls for six offstage Buccini, an · antiquated Italian brass instrument. There are two soprano, two tenor, and two bass buccini - all in the key of Bb. These are typically performed by four trumpets and two trombones, however conductors may request flugel horns, french horns, or wagner tuben! The librarian usually gets to 'cue the tape of bird calls through the ~all sound system concluding the third movement. REFERENCE BOOKS: 9a. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 9b. Schwann I Opus Guide to Classical Recordings · 9c. Lax and Smith, The Great Song Thesaurus 9d. Daniels, Orchestral Music 9e. EncyClopedia of Music in Canada 10. a4, b2, c6, d5, el, f6 COPYRIGHT LAW: . 11. The term of copyright in the U .S. for works written after December 31, 1977 is the life of the author plus 50 years. For pre-197S copyrights, the term in the U.S. was 75 years from the original composition date of the work. Copyright in Canad~ is simply 50 years from the composer's death. a. STRAUSS, Don Juan (composed in 1S8S) is public domain in the U.S. However, since Strauss died in 1949, all his works are still protected by copyright in Canada. orchestra tours to Canada, it is obliged to pay music n;ntal and performance fees. b. BARTOK, Concerto for Orchestra (composed in 1943) is protected by copyright in the U.S: However, since Bartok died in 1945, this work is public domain in Canada. Since no Canadian publisher had undertaken the publication of this work - and since U .S. publishers will not sell it - Canadian orchestras are forced to pay fees. 12. Copyrights between Russia and Western countries is a long-standing problem and source of much confusion. During the cold war, for example, neither side honored the others copyrights and works were copied freely. Special circumstances exist where Russian composers emigrated to the west. The works of Rachmaninoff written and published after he came to the U .S. are protected by western copyright law, while certain works originally published in Russia were not protected. Stravinsky, republished his old works in new versions with a When a u .s 0 Western p~blish.er, ensuring their protection in his adopted country. 13. If a publisher Qr editor can claim substantial change to a public domain work, then the editor's work becomes the basis for copyright protection. In the aforementioned case of MOZAAT, Symphony No. 39, Breitkopf is public domain, but Biirenreiter is protected. PERFORMANCE RIGHTS: ) 4. Small rights are for concertperformance only. Grand rights apply to any draiJilltization of a musical composition, such as adding dancers, costumes or staging. Grand rights obviously apply to ballet and opera performances. Grand rights are typically more costly than small rights. INSTRUMENTS: 15. English Horn: Treble clef, perfect fifth lower than written Piccolo: Treble clef, sounding an octave higher than written Oboe d'amore: Treble clef, a minor third lower than written Tenor Saxophone: Treble clef, major ninth lower than written 16. Ophicleide--Tuba; Sarrusaphone--Contrabassoon; Viola da gamba--Cello; Viola da braccio- Viola. AUDITIONS: 17. Is; 2d; 3b; 4q; Si; 6t; 7j; Sa; 9m; IOr· lie· 12f· 13e- 14k· 15p· 16o· 17u'; ISh; 19~; 20g; 21f.. ' ' TRANSLATION OF FOREIGN TERMS: IS. Arco [Fr.] bow (of a string instrument); Pult [Ger.] desk or music stand; Cinelli [It.] Cymbals; feierlich [Ger.] solemn, stately (tempo marking); Bratsche [Ger.] Viola; Tromba [It.] Trumpet; Posaune [Ger.] Trombone; Ragazzi [It.] Boys (as in the Boys Choir in ORFF, Carmina Burana) SUBTITLES OF WORKS: 19. I. Beethoven; 2. Bruckner; 3 .Tchaikovsky; 4.Shostakovich; 5. Web.er; 6. Messiaen or Harry Freedman (Toronto); 7. Ginastera; S. Ives; 9. Britten; 10. Mahler; 11. Copland; 12. Milhaud; 13. Anthiel; 14. Stravinsky: 15. Dvorak; 16. Mozart; 17. Wagner; 1S. Schubert blllliesJsel"\·ice .and r"eDtals.